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JAVA编程中串口通信的方法介绍

时间:2015-02-06 00:00:00 编辑:简简单单 来源:转载

以前经常用C语言操作串口,实现一些发送接收之类的小功能,最近项目中也用到了串口通信,不过语言变成了Java,这个搞起来略蛋疼。

Java说起来就是各种库各种引用,所以得到某些需求先google搜一把~~比如之前搞半天的读取网页内容,自己边琢磨边写,又是 charset,又是proxy,又是什么browsertype的,晕头转向,最后拿Jsoup一会儿就搞定了……不过使用之前要充分考虑可扩展性和 API的丰富程度,不然后面程序体积变大集成起来很蛋疼。好了废话不说,讲讲串口的问题……

总述

Java常用的(我用到的)串口工具有俩:javacomm和RXTX,前者只支持win32,后者32和64位和其他版本都有。使用方法类似,所以就放到一起说:

下载到压缩包会看到readme之类的提示,然后把对应的dll文件和jar文件分别拷贝到/bin和/lib目录下,然后在出问题的时候继续查看readme。接着跑一下附带的例程。

具体使用过程就是:配置端口波特率、校验位等信息;打开串口;写数据;读输出;关闭。这一系列步骤在写程序的时候一定不要弄颠倒了。

串口配置

需要配置的有4项:

波特率(baudrate)– 一般9600、115200即可

(数据位)dataBits– 一般8 bits

DATABITS_5: 5 bits

DATABITS_6: 6 bits

DATABITS_7: 7 bits

DATABITS_8: 8 bits

(停止位)stopBits — 一般1 stop bit

STOPBITS_1: 1 stop bit

STOPBITS_2: 2 stop bits

STOPBITS_1_5: 1.5 stop bits

(校验位)parity — 不需校验位的话,选择SerialPort.PARITY_NONE

PARITY_NONE: no parity

PARITY_ODD: odd parity

PARITY_EVEN: even parity

PARITY_MARK: mark parity

PARITY_SPACE: space parity

流量控制模式(FlowControlMode) — 一般FLOWCONTROL_NONE

FLOWCONTROL_NONE: no flow control

FLOWCONTROL_RTSCTS_IN: RTS/CTS (hardware) flow control for input

FLOWCONTROL_RTSCTS_OUT: RTS/CTS (hardware) flow control for output

FLOWCONTROL_XONXOFF_IN: XON/XOFF (software) flow control for input

FLOWCONTROL_XONXOFF_OUT:XON/XOFF (software) flow control for output

事件监听

addEventListener(SerialPortEventListener lsnr)

用于监听串口事件(SerialEvents),可监听的事件有:

BI(Break interrupt)

CD(Carrier detect)

CTS(Clear to send)

DATA_AVAILABLE(Data available at the serial port)

DSR(Data set ready)

eventType(Deprecated. Replaced by getEventType method)

FE(Framing error)

OE(Overrun error)

OUTPUT_BUFFER_EMPTY(Output buffer is empty)

PE(Parity error)

RI(Ring indicator)

读数据

通过SerialPortEventListener来,读取到DATA_AVAILABLE,保存并处理串口内容。

写数据

使用getOutputStream来向串口发送数据,是发送数据的唯一方法。使用时,向OutPutStream中写入byte串即可,之后用SerialPortEventListener获取回馈结果。

RXTX例程(来自这里 ):

public class USBComm implements SerialPortEventListener {

 public static final String MESSAGE = "MESSAGE TO BE SEND";
 /**
  * Stream for the storage of incoming data
  */
 private InputStream inputStream;
 /**
  * Stream for the dispatching of data
  */
 private OutputStream outputStream;
 /**
  * Timeout of the USB port
  */
 private final int PORT_TIMEOUT = 2000;
 /**
  * Representation of the serial port used for the communication
  */
 public SerialPort serialPort;
 /**
  * Buffer that stores the received bytes from the media
  */
 protected LinkedBlockingQueue<Byte> receivedBytes;

 /**
  * Builds a new manager for the communication via USB port.
  * @exception IOException if an error occurred during the opening of the USB port
  */
 public USBComm(String comm) throws IOException {
   receivedBytes = new LinkedBlockingQueue<Byte>(100000);
  String port = comm; //place the right COM port here, OS dependent
 
  //Check that the USB port exists and is recognized:
  Enumeration<?> portList = CommPortIdentifier.getPortIdentifiers();
  boolean portFound = false;
  CommPortIdentifier portId = null;
  while (portList.hasMoreElements()) {
   portId = (CommPortIdentifier) portList.nextElement();
      if (portId.getPortType() == CommPortIdentifier.PORT_SERIAL) {
    if (portId.getName().equals(port)) {
     Log.logAndDisplay(LogLevel.INFO, "SerialConnection", "Found port: " + port);
        portFound = true;
        break;
    }
      }
  }
 
  if (!portFound)
      throw new IOException("port " + port + " not found.");
 
  try {
   Log.logAndDisplay(LogLevel.INFO, "SerialConnection", "USB port " + port + " opening...");
      serialPort = (SerialPort) portId.open("USBCommunicator", PORT_TIMEOUT);
      inputStream = serialPort.getInputStream();
      outputStream = serialPort.getOutputStream();
      serialPort.addEventListener(this);
        serialPort.notifyOnDataAvailable(true);

      Thread.sleep(1000);

      serialPort.setSerialPortParams(serialPort.getBaudRate(),
        serialPort.getDataBits(),
        serialPort.getStopBits(),
     serialPort.getParity());
      serialPort.setFlowControlMode(serialPort.getFlowControlMode());

  } catch (Exception e) {
   System.err.println(e.getMessage());
   throw new IOException(e.getMessage());
  }
 }


 public void closeUSB(){
  //close the streams for serial port:
  try {
   inputStream.close();
   outputStream.close();
  } catch (IOException e) {
   System.err.println("Cannot close streams:" + e.getMessage());
  }
 }

 /**
  * Listener for USB events
  *
  * @param event new event occurred on the USB port
  */
 public void serialEvent(SerialPortEvent event){
  switch (event.getEventType()) {
 
   case SerialPortEvent.BI:
   case SerialPortEvent.OE:
   case SerialPortEvent.FE:
   case SerialPortEvent.PE:
   case SerialPortEvent.CD:
   case SerialPortEvent.CTS:
   case SerialPortEvent.DSR:
   case SerialPortEvent.RI:
   case SerialPortEvent.OUTPUT_BUFFER_EMPTY:
    //nothing to do...
       break;
 
   case SerialPortEvent.DATA_AVAILABLE:
    byte received = -1;
    do {
     try {
      received = (byte)inputStream.read();
     } catch (IOException e) {
      System.err.println("Error reading USB:" + e.getMessage());
     }
    
     synchronized (receivedBytes) {
      try {
       receivedBytes.add(received);
      } catch (IllegalStateException ew) {
       System.err.println(ew.getMessage());
       receivedBytes.poll();
       receivedBytes.add(received);
      }
     }
    } while(received != -1);

       break;
  }
 }

 public void write(byte[] buffer){
     try {
      outputStream.write(buffer);
      //outputStream.flush();
     } catch (IOException e) {
      System.err.println("Cannot write:" + e.getMessage());
     }
 }
 public static void main(String[] args){
  USBComm usb;
  try {
   usb = new USBComm("COM73"); // change to your port
  byte[] b = MESSAGE.getBytes();
  usb.write(b);
  usb.serialPort.close();
  usb.closeUSB();

  } catch (IOException e) {
   System.err.println("IOException:" + e.getMessage());
  }
 }
}

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