sql group by 用法

www.111cn.net 更新:2011-05-10 编辑:kp12345 来源:转载

GROUP BY 语句
GROUP BY 语句用于结合合计函数,根据一个或多个列对结果集进行分组。

SQL GROUP BY 语法
SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value
GROUP BY column_name


mysql教程> CREATE TABLE Employee(
    ->     id            int,
    ->     first_name    VARCHAR(15),
    ->     last_name     VARCHAR(15),
    ->     start_date    DATE,
    ->     end_date      DATE,
    ->     salary        FLOAT(8,2),
    ->     city          VARCHAR(10),
    ->     description   VARCHAR(15)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

mysql>
mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->              values (1,'Jason',    'Martin',  '19960725',  '20060725', 1234.56, 'Toronto',  'Programmer');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->               values(2,'Alison',   'Mathews',  '19760321', '19860221', 6661.78, 'Vancouver','Tester');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->               values(3,'James',    'Smith',    '19781212', '19900315', 6544.78, 'Vancouver','Tester');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->               values(4,'Celia',    'Rice',     '19821024', '19990421', 2344.78, 'Vancouver','Manager');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->               values(5,'Robert',   'Black',    '19840115', '19980808', 2334.78, 'Vancouver','Tester');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)

mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->               values(6,'Linda',    'Green',    '19870730', '19960104', 4322.78,'New York',  'Tester');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->               values(7,'David',    'Larry',    '19901231', '19980212', 7897.78,'New York',  'Manager');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql>
mysql> insert into Employee(id,first_name, last_name, start_date, end_Date,   salary,  City,       Description)
    ->               values(8,'James',    'Cat',     '19960917',  '20020415', 1232.78,NULL, 'Tester');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql> select * from Employee;
+------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
| id   | first_name | last_name | start_date | end_date   | salary  | city      | description |
+------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
|    1 | Jason      | Martin    | 1996-07-25 | 2006-07-25 | 1234.56 | Toronto   | Programmer  |
|    2 | Alison     | Mathews   | 1976-03-21 | 1986-02-21 | 6661.78 | Vancouver | Tester      |
|    3 | James      | Smith     | 1978-12-12 | 1990-03-15 | 6544.78 | Vancouver | Tester      |
|    4 | Celia      | Rice      | 1982-10-24 | 1999-04-21 | 2344.78 | Vancouver | Manager     |
|    5 | Robert     | Black     | 1984-01-15 | 1998-08-08 | 2334.78 | Vancouver | Tester      |
|    6 | Linda      | Green     | 1987-07-30 | 1996-01-04 | 4322.78 | New York  | Tester      |
|    7 | David      | Larry     | 1990-12-31 | 1998-02-12 | 7897.78 | New York  | Manager     |
|    8 | James      | Cat       | 1996-09-17 | 2002-04-15 | 1232.78 | NULL      | Tester      |
+------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql>
mysql> SELECT city, COUNT(*) FROM employee GROUP BY city;
+-----------+----------+
| city      | COUNT(*) |
+-----------+----------+
| NULL      |        1 |
| New York  |        2 |
| Toronto   |        1 |
| Vancouver |        4 |
+-----------+----------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
mysql> drop table Employee;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

与count()同用

mysql> SELECT city, COUNT(*) FROM employee
    -> WHERE description = 'Tester' OR description = 'Programmer'
    -> GROUP BY city;
+-----------+----------+
| city      | COUNT(*) |
+-----------+----------+
| New York  |        1 |
| Toronto   |        1 |
| Vancouver |        4 |
+-----------+----------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql> drop table Employee;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

带上is not null

mysql> SELECT city, COUNT(*) FROM employee
    -> WHERE description IS NOT NULL
    -> GROUP BY city;
+-----------+----------+
| city      | COUNT(*) |
+-----------+----------+
| New York  |        2 |
| Toronto   |        1 |
| Vancouver |        4 |
+-----------+----------+
3 rows in set (0.02 sec)

最基本的

mysql> SELECT * FROM employee
    -> GROUP BY city;
+------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
| id   | first_name | last_name | start_date | end_date   | salary  | city      | description |
+------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
|    6 | Linda      | Green     | 1987-07-30 | 1996-01-04 | 4322.78 | New York  | Tester      |
|    1 | Jason      | Martin    | 1996-07-25 | 2006-07-25 | 1234.56 | Toronto   | Programmer  |
|    2 | Alison     | Mathews   | 1976-03-21 | 1986-02-21 | 6661.78 | Vancouver | Tester      |
+------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
3 rows in set (0.05 sec)

注:合计函数 (比如 SUM) 常常需要添加 GROUP BY 语句。
where 子句的作用是在对查询结果进行分组前,将不符合where条件的行去掉,即在分组之前过滤数据,条件中不能包含聚组函数,使用where条件显示特定的行。
  having 子句的作用是筛选满足条件的组,即在分组之后过滤数据,条件中经常包含聚组函数,使用having 条件显示特定的组,也可以使用多个分组标准进行分组。