一聚教程网:一个值得你收藏的教程网站

浅析MySQL显式类型转换

时间:2017-12-26 10:46:34 编辑:猪哥 来源:转载

CAST 函数

在之前的文章中,我们提到过CAST函数,用于显示进行类型转换。在避免隐式类型转换时,好处多多。其实这里面还有很多细节,是需要梳理下的。

首先来看看下面这个转换:

mysql> SELECT CAST('2017-12-14' AS DATE);
+----------------------------+
| CAST('2017-12-14' AS DATE) |
+----------------------------+
| 2017-12-14         |
+----------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

其中:

2017-12-14 是待转换的数据。

DATE为转换后的类型。

标准语法是这样的:

CAST(expr AS type)

这里需要注意的是type类型不支持所有的数据类型,而是支持特定的数据类型,也是今天这篇文章的重点。(我就吃过这个亏,想当然的以为支持所有数据类型,结果就被打脸了) 。

不支持的报错:

mysql> SELECT CAST('1024' AS int);
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 'int)' at line 1

支持的类型

下面是CAST函数支持转换的数据类型列表:


类型 备注
DATE YYYY-MM-DD
DATETIME YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss
TIME HH:mm:ss
DECIMAL 通常用于带小数位
CHAR 固定长度字符串
NCHAR 类型于CHAR一致
SIGNED 一个有符号的64整数位
UNSIGNED 一个无符号的64整数位
BINARY 二进制字符串
JSON MySQL 5.7.8 及更高版本

注意:

其中DATE支持的范围是: 1000-01-01 至 9999-12-31,(实验版本为:)

如果为: 999-01-01 结果则会0999-01-01。

如果为: 01-01-01则会为:2001-01-01。

mysql> select cast('999-11-11' as DATE);
+---------------------------+
| cast('999-11-11' as DATE) |
+---------------------------+
| 0999-11-11        |
+---------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select cast('01-11-11' as DATE);
+--------------------------+
| cast('01-11-11' as DATE) |
+--------------------------+
| 2001-11-11        |
+--------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select version();
+-----------+
| version() |
+-----------+
| 5.7.20  |
+-----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

2. CAST函数中expr的值可以转换为type,其转换的结果才正确,否则转换后的结果默认值,如Null,0等。

例如:一个Char类型转换为Demical类型,转换的结果就为0。

mysql> SELECT CAST('ANDYQIAN' AS DECIMAL);
+-----------------------------+
| CAST('ANDYQIAN' AS DECIMAL) |
+-----------------------------+
|              0 |
+-----------------------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

转换案例

这里给出一些常用的类型转换例子。

DATE 类型

mysql> select cast('2017-12-14' as DATE);
+----------------------------+
| cast('2017-12-14' as DATE) |
+----------------------------+
| 2017-12-14         |
+----------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

TIME 类型

mysql> select cast('12:00:00' as TIME);
+--------------------------+
| cast('12:00:00' as TIME) |
+--------------------------+
| 12:00:00         |
+--------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

DATETIM 类型

mysql> select cast('2017-12-14 00:11:11' as DATETIME);
+-----------------------------------------+
| cast('2017-12-14 00:11:11' as DATETIME) |
+-----------------------------------------+
| 2017-12-14 00:11:11           |
+-----------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

SIGNED类型

mysql> select cast('-1024' as SIGNED);
+-------------------------+
| cast('-1024' as SIGNED) |
+-------------------------+
|          -1024 |
+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

UNSIGNED类型

mysql> select cast('-1024' as UNSIGNED);
+---------------------------+
| cast('-1024' as UNSIGNED) |
+---------------------------+
|   18446744073709550592 |
+---------------------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

DECIMAL类型

mysql> select cast('18.11' as DECIMAL(18,2));
+--------------------------------+
| cast('18.11' as DECIMAL(18,2)) |
+--------------------------------+
|             18.11 |
+--------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

文章评论

热门栏目